Types of Mental illness
Although types of mental illness cover a huge area of conditions, nonetheless they can be categorized into the following listed below.
The primary mood disorders are depression and bipolar disorder. About 10 percent of all American adults suffer from depression. Bipolar means the person has suffered at least one episode of mania.
These include panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Psychosis means that the brain is sending signals to the person that causes them to experience something that’s not actually happening. Commonly this is hearing voices, seeing things that aren’t really there, or having delusions (false beliefs). Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic condition.
Eating disorders involve extreme emotions, attitudes and behaviors involving weight and food. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are the most common eating disorders.
Impulse control and addiction disorders
People with impulse control disorders are unable to resist urges, or impulses, to perform acts that could be harmful to themselves or others. Pyromania (starting fires), kleptomania (stealing) and compulsive gambling are examples of impulse control disorders. Alcohol and drugs are common objects of addictions. Often, people with these disorders become so involved with the objects of their addiction that they begin to ignore responsibilities and relationships.
People with personality disorders have extreme and inflexible personality traits that are distressing to the person and/or cause problems in work, school or social relationships. In addition, the person's patterns of thinking and behavior significantly differ from the expectations of society and are so rigid that they interfere with the person's normal functioning. Examples include antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and paranoid personality disorder.
Other, less common types of mental illnesses include:
Adjustment disorder occurs when a person develops emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to a stressful event or situation. The stressors may include natural disasters, such as an earthquake or tornado; events or crises, such as a car accident or the diagnosis of a major illness; or interpersonal problems, such as a divorce, death of a loved one, loss of a job or a problem with substance abuse. Adjustment disorder usually begins within three months of the event or situation and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated.
People with these disorders suffer severe disturbances or changes in memory, consciousness, identity, and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings. These disorders usually are associated with overwhelming stress, which may be the result of traumatic events, accidents or disasters that may be experienced or witnessed by the individual. Dissociative identity disorder, formerly called multiple personality disorder, or "split personality", and depersonalization disorder are examples of dissociative disorders.
Factitious disorders are conditions in which physical and/or emotional symptoms are experienced in order to place the individual in the role of a patient or a person in need of help.
Sexual and gender disorders
These include disorders that affect sexual desire, performance and behavior. Sexual dysfunction, gender identity disorder and the paraphilias are examples of sexual and gender disorders.
A person with a somatoform disorder, formerly known as psychosomatic disorder, experiences physical symptoms of an illness even though a doctor can find no medical cause for the symptoms.
People with tic disorders make sounds or display body movements that are repeated, quick, sudden and/or uncontrollable. (Sounds that are made involuntarily are called vocal tics.) Tourette syndrome is an example of a tic disorder.
Other diseases or conditions, including various sleep-related problems and many forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, are sometimes classified as mental illnesses because they involve the brain.
Enter the Mangosteen
The mangosteen, a fruit from Southeast Asia, has a class of nutritionally active components called xanthones. These xanthones work in three ways to reduce the risk of disease in general, and mental problems in particular.
Category 1: Antioxidant
The forty plus xanthones in the mangosteen are antioxidants. They work as three-dimensional molecules to prevent and repair free radical damage.
Category 2: Anti-inflammatory
Some of mangosteen’s xanthones, have anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammation isn’t just the cause of pain and stiffness associated with physical illness; it is also a basic mechanism in many deadly diseases.
Category 3: Special Properties
The last thirty years have produced dozens of scientific studies showing the special properties that xanthones have in the body and in laboratory settings. We now know that some of them contribute to healing the lining of the stomach and the intestine. Since the brain-gut connection is critical in mental illness, healing the intestines often has a positive effect on various types of mental illness.
How can Xanthones Affect Mental illness?
Brain cells (neurons) talk to each other by releasing substances called neurotransmitters. One nerve releases a neurotransmitter and another nerve picks up that signal and sends the message along. This process, when altered or damaged, can cause many different psychiatric conditions and mental symptoms.
Two of the most common neurotransmitters are serotonin and dopamine. Just about everybody has heard the term serotonin because of the frequent commercials on television for antidepressants and anti-anxiety agents. These are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). For depression and anxiety, there’s often a decrease in the brain’s ability to communicate with serotonin. These medications attempt to increase the effectiveness of natural serotonin.
The other neurotransmitter I mentioned is dopamine. When there’s too much dopamine transmission in certain areas of the body, we experience our psychotic symptoms. As a result the drugs we have for schizophrenia are actually aimed at decreasing the effectiveness of dopamine transmission.
Have You Ever had a Gut Feeling?
Our first hint at a connection between mangosteen and mental health might come from the gastrointestinal system – an area for which mangosteen is becoming well known for improving health. Remember, I described serotonin as the neurotransmitter associated with depression and anxiety. Well, there are receptors for serotonin throughout our stomach and intestines. That’s where the saying “gut feeling” comes from. In fact, 95 percent of normal serotonin receptors are found in the G.I. tract.
Research has repeatedly shown a direct relation between gastrointestinal disease and depression and anxiety. Ninety percent of people with irritable bowel disease also have major depression. We’re beginning to see clinical studies where improvement in stomach or intestinal diseases causes an improvement in mental health at the same time.
How you feel physically directly affects how you feel mentally, and vice versa.
Inflammation and Mental Health
Inflammation in our cardiac arteries leads to heart disease. We can see the same kind of inflammation in the small blood vessels of the brain. When these blood vessels are damaged, they in turn damage the neurons they feed. We’re monitoring to see a direct connection between inflammation and many types of mental illness.
A recent clinical study monitored people who had just quit smoking. Scientists monitored smokers to see who would develop depression after they quit. Half of the people developed depression and half didn’t. The subjects who did not develop depression had no change in their C-reactive protein (an inflammation marker). But, every person who did develop depression had an increase in his or her C-reactive protein. Their depression was directly related to inflammation.
Mangosteen, being a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory, may be of help in treating the inflammatory changes in our body that are related to many types of mental illness. I am positive that the beneficial effects we see from mangosteen for depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia will lead to further research. We must know why mangosteen’s xanthones have such positive effects in mental health.
This is just the beginning. We are finally on the journey, not just a journey out of mental illness, but also a journey into mental health.
The Xanthones from the mangosteen have been shown in laboratory studies to be antioxidants and anti-inflammatories and to have other special properties. However, laboratory results do not guarantee that the same will happen in the human body.
Mangosteen is a supplement and not a drug. Therefore, no one can say that the mangosteen will cure, treat or prevent any condition or symptoms.
Consider the science of the mangosteen and the experiences of those who are already taking it for their health. Then answer for yourself: Does mangosteen make sense for you?
The only way to find out what mangosteen will do for you is to begin taking it. In the case of mental illness, it is important to do this with the assistance of a qualified professional.
Why mangosteen for mental health?
Dr Robert Stone has spoken about mangosteen and the prevention of deadly disease with thousands of people all across the United States. When he started using mangosteen, he saw it as a great way to help reduce risk factors for most diseases. But he also found out that mangosteen allowed him to discontinue his medication for reflux.
Then he began hearing stories of people feeling better emotionally – saying their depression was decreasing; their anxiety was decreasing; they were sleeping better; and they were feeling less stressed. He thought they were feeling better emotionally because they were feeling better physically, but he kept hearing positive personal experiences for many different mental health conditions. He finally started paying attention and, since he is a psychiatrist, people wanted him to answer the question, “What about mangosteen and mental health?”
He put his research cap back on and started looking in the field of mental health to see if anything of what we know of mangosteen would give us a reason to try it for mental health. In the United States and Canada, depression and anxiety are the two largest causes of disability. In the United States, over 26 percent of all adults have a diagnosable mental health condition.
Robert C. Stone, D.O. is a physician, researcher, and trauma psychiatrist with more than thirty scientific papers and book chapters published. He spent five years working as one of the most requested trainers for several major pharmaceutical companies. He is the author of the book, Circle of Wisdom, as well as the best selling CD, Mangosteen: Fighting the Fatal Five. He is dedicated to spreading the message of the mangosteen fruit for achieving optimum health.