Mangosteen Fruit Benefits and its Medicinal Uses
Mangosteen fruit benefits are numerous although it's a functional fruit juice. This means it offers more than the ordinary fruit juice beverage. Much more. In fact, mangosteen packs so many beneficial compounds that it should not be taken by the glassful like other juice beverages. To experience the mangosteen fruit benefits, most people need only one or two ounces of mangosteen a day. Of course, the number of ounces of mangosteen that are right for you depends on your health condition and the way your body uniquely responds to mangosteen.
Dried mangosteen fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China for medicinal use. The sliced and dried rind is powdered and administered to overcome dysentery. When made into an ointment, it is applied on eczema and other skin disorders.
Mangosteen fruit benefits can also be found in the rind decoction as it is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea and gleet and can be applied externally as an astringent lotion. A portion of the rind is steeped in water overnight and the infusion given as a remedy for chronic diarrhea in adults and children.
Filipinos employ a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge and to treat thrush, diarrhea, dysentery and urinary disorders.
In Malaya, an infusion of the leaves, combined with unripe banana and a little benzoin is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root decoction is taken to regulate menstruation. A bark extract called "amibiasine", has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic dysentery.
There have been more than 60 independent lab studies performed on the Mangosteen ever since the 1980's and the findings from these studies have shown the following unique properties, confirming the mangosteen fruit benefits in multiple categories.
1. Anti-fatigue (energy booster)
2. Powerful anti-inflammatory (prevents inflammation)
3. Analgesic (prevents pain)
4. Anti-ulcer (stomach, mouth and bowel ulcers)
5. Anti-depressant (low to moderate)
6. Anxyolytic (anti-anxiety effect)
7. Anti-Alzheimerian (helps prevent dementia)
8. Anti-tumor and cancer prevention (multiple categories cited)
9. Immunomodulator (multiple categories cited)
13. Anti-biotic (modulates bacterial infections)
14. Anti-fungal (prevents fungal infections)
15. Anti-seborrheaic (prevents skin disorders)
16. Anti-lipidemic (blood fat lowering, LDL)
17. Anti-atherosclerotic (prevents hardening of arteries)
18. Cardioprotective (protects the heart)
19. Hypotensive (blood pressure lowering)
20. Hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic effect, helps lower blood sugar)
21. Anti-obesity (helps with weight loss)
22. Anti-arthritic (prevention of arthritis)
23. Anti-osteoporosis (helps prevent the loss of bone mass)
24. Anti-periodontic (prevents gum disease)
25. Anti-allergenic (prevents allergic reaction)
26. Anti-calculitic (prevents kidney stones)
27. Anti-pyretic (fever lowering)
30. Anti-neuralgic (reduces nerve pain)
31. Anti-vertigo (prevents dizziness)
32. Anti-glaucomic (prevents glaucoma)
33. Anti-cataract (prevents cataracts)
34. Pansystemic - has a synergistic effect on the whole body.
Derived from the Greek word phyto (plant) and nutrient (a constituent of food necessary for normal physiological function), phytonutrients—also known as phytochemicals—are natural, bioactive compounds found in plant foods.
Most phytonutrients overlap and complement one another, boasting complete benefits that include antioxidant effects and immune system stimulation. In short, specific phytonutrients found in fruits and vegetables work together with other nutrients to protect your health. These protective plant compounds are an emerging area of health and nutrition, with new research reported almost daily.
Phytonutrients found in the mangosteen include:
The strongest and most researched phytonutrients of the mangosteen are its xanthones.
Xanthones, which are unique to the mangosteen, as a class of phytonutrients are polyphenolic bioflavonoids. Over 200 xanthones are currently known to exist in nature, and approximately 40 of them are found in mangosteen. Xanthones possess documented biological activity that has drawn the interest of the medical community for several decades.
First isolated in 1855 by a German scientist studying dysentery, the yellow compound was named after the Greek word for yellow, xanthos.
Over 60 research papers show antitumor, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antihistamine, antiflammatory, antioxidant and gastrointestinal protective effects, adding to the ever growing tally of the Mangosteen fruit benefits.
Xanthones belong to a class of biologically active polyphenolic compounds structurally similar to bioflavonoids. In the 1980s, research reported the natural ability of xanthones in mangosteen had to slow down and even stop the growth of dangerous microorganisms. *
The xanthones in mangosteen have been shown to inhibit both bacteria (including strains of the staphylococcus bacteria that were antibiotic resistant) and viruses (such as HIV-1) **
In two separate studies, researchers proved that the xanthones in mangosteen prevented the growth of as many as six different dangerous fungi. ***
In nature, xanthones are very restricted in occurrence. The majority of them are found in just two families of higher plants, Guttiferae and Gentianaceae.
More recent research has revealed that, while the xanthones appear to be the most nutritionally important elements in the mangosteen fruit, catechins, polysaccharides, proanthocyanidins and sterols also play major roles in providing the fruit with its unmatched medicinal attributes.
* Sundaram BM, Gopalakrishnan C, Subramaniam S, Shankaranarayanan D, Kameswaran L. 'Antimicrobial activities of Garcinia mangostana,' Planta Med 1983 May; 48(1):59-60
** Iinuma M., Tosa H., Tanaka T., Asai F., Kobayashi Y., Shimano R., Miyauchi K. 'Antibacterial activity of xanthones from guttiferaeous plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,' J Pharm Pharmacol 1996 Aug;48(8):861-5
Chen S.X., Wan M., and Loh B.N. 'Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Garcinia mangostana,' Planta Med, 1996 Aug;62(4):381-382
*** Gopalakrishnan G., Banumathi B., Suresh G. 'Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives,' J Nat Prod 1997 May;60(5):519-24
Bonnie Tay Yen Ping. 'Chemical constituents of Garcinia mangostana, G. Parvifolia, G. griffitti, and G. diversifolia (Guttiferae) and their biological activities.' Dissertation from Universiti Putra Malaysia, 1996.
Proanthocyanidins present in the mangosteen as in grape seeds and skins and pine bark extract, have numerous qualities considered to be valuable in both the prevention of disease and the restoration of homeostasis (healthful balance) when disease is present. Hundreds of papers document the antitumor, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antioxident and neuroprotective effects of proanthocyanidins, thus proving to be one of the pillars of Mangosteen fruit benefits.
Catechins are active ingredients in green tea as well as mangosteen. Hundreds of papers detailing the benefits of catechins exist. They document antitumor, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, many of which co-relate to the earlier mentioned Mangosteen fruit benefits.
Polysaccharides known to have beneficial health effects, are very plentiful in the mangosteen. Polysaccharides are incredibly potent anti-cancer and anti-bacterial plant compounds. Polysaccharides help block a mutated cell's ability to stick to healthy cells. This helps stop the spread of cancer. Japanese scientists isolated several polysaccharides from the mangosteen that helped decrease murine tumors (a cancerous tumor in mice). *
Another study that looked at the polysaccarides from mangosteen found that they were effective against intracellular bacteria (such as Salmonella enteritidis). The study results showed that the mangosteen's potent polysaccarides killed all of the bacteria in the culture. **
* Michio Fujihara, Yumiko Kurata, Yasuyuki Kosaka, Prasit Chanarat, Terukazu Nagumo. 'Antitumor polysaccharides from the pericarb of mangosteen'. Bull Chiang Mai Assoc Med Sci, Vol 30, Supplement No. 1 1997
** Chanarat P. Chanarat N. Fikojara M. Nagumo T. (1997) 'Immunopharmacological activity of polysaccharide from the pericard of mangosteen garcinia; phagocytic intracellular killing activities,' J Med Assoc Thai, 1:S149-154
Quinones are known for their anti-bacterial properties. In fact, quinones have a similar molecular structure to tetracycline, a common antibiotic. In addition, quinones are extremely strong free radical inhibitors. *
* O.I. Shadryo et al. (2002) 'Quinones as free radical fragmentation inhibitors in biologically important molecules.' Free Radical Research
Stilbenes are a plant's defense against fungi. The amazing thing about stilbenes is that they maintain their anti-fungal properties even when they are eaten. Stilbenes are also strong antioxidants. *
* Jang M.S., Cai E.N., Udeani G.O., Slowing K.V., Thomas C.F., Beecher C.W.W., Fong H.H.S., Farnsworth N.R., Kinghorn A.D., Mehta R.G., Moon R.C., Pezzuto J.M., 1997. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from Grapes. Science, 275, 218-220.
Sterols are plant lipids or fats. The best known supplement in this class is omega 3 fatty acid. The sterols of the mangosteen are found in its seeds. For the moment, insufficient research exists to allow further scientific comment on the mangosteen sterols in any significant Mangosteen fruit benefit.
Fiber while not strictly a phytonutrient, is nonetheless important as a Mangosteen fruit benefit in the maintenance of gastrointestinal health. In the whole mangosteen fruit, significant amounts of fiber are obvious.
To select the best table fruits, choose those with the highest number of stigma lobes at the apex, for these have the highest number of fleshy segments and accordingly the fewest seeds. The numbers always correspond. Mangosteens are usually eaten fresh as dessert. One need only hold the fruit with the stem-end downward, take a sharp knife and cut around the middle completely through the rind, and lift off the top half, which leaves the fleshy segments exposed in the colorful "cup"– the bottom half of the rind. The segments are lifted out by fork. Although the taste of the flesh is exquisite, the focus of the Mangosteen fruit benefits are not due to the aril.
The fleshy segments are sometimes canned, but they are said to lose their delicate flavor in canning, especially if pasteurized for as much as 10 minutes. Tests have shown that it is best to use a 40% sirup and sterilize for only 5 minutes. The more acid fruits are best for preserving. To make jam, in Malaya, seedless segments are boiled with an equal amount of sugar and a few cloves for 15 to 20 minutes and then put into glass jars. In the Philippines, a preserve is made by simply boiling the segments in brown sugar, and the seeds may be included to enrich the flavor.
The seeds are sometimes eaten alone after boiling or roasting.
The rind is rich in pectin. After treatment with 6% sodium chloride to eliminate astringency, the rind is made into a purplish jelly.
Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture 80.2-84.9 g
Protein 0.50-0.60 g
Fat 0.1-0.6 g
Total Carbohydrates 14.3-15.6 g
Total Sugars 16.42-16.82 g
(sucrose, glucose and fructose)
Fiber 5.0-5.1 g
Ash 0.2-0.23 g
Calcium 0.01-8.0 mg
Phosphorus 0.02-12.0 mg
Iron 0.20-0.80 mg
Thiamine 0.03 mg
Ascorbic Acid 1.0-2.0 mg
*Minimum/maximum values from analyses made in the Philippines and Washington, D.C.
Mangosteen twigs are used as chewsticks in Ghana. The fruit rind contains 7 to 14% catechin tannin and rosin, and is used for tanning leather in China. It also yields a black dye.
Mangosteen fruit benefits do not limit to the fruit itself. In Thailand, all non-bearing trees are felled, so the wood is available but usually only in small dimensions. It is dark-brown, heavy, almost sinks in water, and is moderately durable. It has been used to make handles for spears, also rice pounders, and is employed in construction and cabinetwork.
NOTE: One of the reasons for designing this website is to educate visitors on the benefits of daily consumption of Pure Mangosteen Juice. It is also a web site sharing resources and info about mangosteen juice benefits and Xanthones.
Mangosteen is a fruit. The health benefits from mangosteen due to xanthones have been shown in laboratory studies to be powerful antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, and to have other special properties.
However, laboratory results do not guarantee that the same will happen in the human body. Mangosteen is a supplement and not a drug; therefore, no one can say that mangosteen juice benefits include a cure, treat, or prevent any specific condition or symptom the way a drug prescription is administered by a qualified health practitioner.
The United States government, however, has determined and stated that increasing the amount of plant-based foods and supplements in our diet improves our health and decreases the incidence of chronic disease. Look at the available science on the mangosteen and then answer for yourself - Does mangosteen juice make sense for you?
The only way to find out what mangosteen will do for you is to begin taking it. In the case of mental illness, it is important to do this with the assistance of a qualified professional.
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