Where is the Mangosteen Source?
Is there just one mangosteen source in the world? It used to be but with the recent publicity the mangosteen fruit has gained, it is being grown in a number of places today.
The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. The tree grows from 7 to 25 m (20-80 ft) tall. If there is to be a mangosteen description in a few words, what stands out as prominent would be the rind (exocarp) of the edible fruit, which is deep reddish purple when ripe. Botanically an aril, the fragrant edible flesh can be described as sweet and tangy, citrusy with peach flavor and texture. Mangosteen is closely related to other edible tropical fruits such as button mangosteen and lemondrop mangosteen. Botanically, it bears no relation to the mango.
The juvenile mangosteen fruit, which does not require fertilization to form, first appears as pale green or almost white in the shade of the canopy. As the fruit enlarges over the next two to three months, the exocarp color deepens to darker green. During this period, the fruit increases in size until its exocarp is 6–8 centimeters in outside diameter, remaining hard until a final, abrupt ripening stage.
The mangosteen and minerals of the mangosteen exocarp comprises an array of polyphenolic acids including xanthones and tannins that assure astringency to discourage infestation by insects, fungi, plant viruses, bacteria and animal predation while the fruit is immature. Color changes and softening of the exocarp are natural processes of ripening that indicates the fruit can be eaten and the seeds are finished developing.
Mangosteen produces a recalcitrant seed, i.e., perishable, short-lived and must be kept moist to remain viable until germination. Technically nucellar in origin and not the result of fertilization, mangosteen seeds germinate as soon as they are removed from the fruit and die quickly if allowed to dry.
Once the developing mangosteen fruit has stopped expanding, chlorophyll synthesis slows as the next color phase begins. Initially streaked with red, the exocarp pigmentation transitions from green to red to dark purple, indicating a final ripening stage. This entire process takes place over a period of ten days as the edible quality of the fruit peaks.
The edible endocarp of the mangosteen is botanically defined as an aril with the same shape and size as a tangerine 4–6 centimeters in diameter, but is white. The circle of wedge-shaped arils contains 4–8 segments, the larger ones harboring apomictic seeds that are unpalatable unless roasted.
Often described as a subtle delicacy, the arils bear an exceptionally mild aroma, quantitatively having about 400 times fewer chemical constituents than fragrant fruits, explaining its relative mildness. Main volatile components having caramel, grass and butter notes as part of the mangosteen source fragrance are hexyl acetate, hexenol and α-copaene.
On the bottom of the exocarp, raised ridges (remnants of the stigma), arranged like spokes of a wheel, correspond to the number of aril sections. Mangosteens reach fruit-bearing in as little as 5–6 years, but more typically require 8–10 years.
Mangosteen and Minerals, Antioxidant Strength
Mangosteen fruit is typically advertised and marketed as part of an emerging category of novel functional foods sometimes called "superfruits" presumed to have a combination of
1) appealing subjective characteristics, such as taste, fragrance and visual qualities,
2) nutrient richness,
3) antioxidant strength and
4) potential impact for lowering risk against human diseases.
The aril is the flavorful part of the fruit but when analyzed specifically for its nutrient content the mangosteen aril only meets the first criterion above, as its overall nutrient profile is absent of important content, it contains no pigmentation (correspondingly, no antioxidant phytochemicals in significant concentration) and there is no scientific evidence of aril constituents having any health properties.
Purée or juice from arils combined with exocarp phenolic extracts produces juice having purple color and astringency like the exocarp pigments, including xanthones under study for potential anti-cancer effects on mouse mammary tissue in vitro. As the research of benefits derived from xanthones is still on going, exactly why and how the fruit worked as a healing agent in traditional medicine for a variety of ailments is slowly building up, and generating much interest in the scientific community.
Mangosteen Fruit Legend, Geographic Origins and Culinary Applications
There is a legend about Queen Victoria offering a reward to anyone who could deliver to her the fabled fruit.
An ultra-tropical tree, the mangosteen must be grown in consistently warm conditions, as exposure to temperatures below 40°F (4°C) will generally kill a mature plant.
Due to ongoing restrictions on imports, mangosteen fruit is not commonly available to the public. Following export from the primary mangosteen source in Southeast Asia, the fresh fruit is available seasonally in some local markets like those of Chinatowns and rarely in produce sections of grocery stores in North America and Europe. Mangosteen fruit and its related products, such as juices and nutritional supplements, are legally imported into the United States which had an import ban until 2007.
Mangosteens are readily available canned and frozen in Western countries. Without fumigation or irradiation as fresh fruit, mangosteens have historically been illegal for importation in commercial volumes into the United States due to fears that they harbor the Asian fruit fly which would endanger U.S. crops. This situation, however, officially changed on July 23, 2007 when irradiated imports from Thailand, a primary mangosteen source, were allowed upon USDA approval of irradiation, packing and shipping techniques.
From 2006 to present, private small volume orders from fruits grown on Puerto Rico, another mangosteen source, are being filled for American gourmet restaurants who serve the aril pieces as a delicacy dessert. Beginning in 2007 for the first time, fresh mangosteen fruits are also being sold for as high as $45 per pound from specialty produce stores in New York City.
Before ripening, the mangosteen fruit shell is fibrous and firm, but becomes soft and easy to pry open when the fruit ripens. To open a mangosteen fruit, the shell is usually scored first with a knife; one holds the fruit in both hands, prying gently along the score with the thumbs until the rind cracks. It is then easy to pull the halves apart along the crack and remove the fruit, taking care with the purple, inky exocarp juice containing pigments that are an avid dye on skin and fabric.
- Mangosteen Fruit Benefits
- Mangosteen fruit benefits are numerous, and in one usage the rind decoction is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea and gleet and is also applied externally as an astringent lotion.
- Mangosteen Juice Benefits
- Mangosteen Juice Benefits are multiple. This simple fact is both its greatest asset and its greatest liability.
- Properties of Xanthones
- Properties of Xanthones - Xanthones are biologically active plant phenols found in a few select plants. Current research on xanthones suggests they are beneficial in helping with many conditions.
- Natural Health Remedies
- Current health articles on why healthy people drink Mangosteen juice. The natural health remedies associated with Mangosteen juice contribute to excellent cardinal health in both man and animals.
- Hormone Allergy and Imbalance in Women
- Hormone Allergy is a serious problem. According to the Lancet 2003, women on synthetic hormones (HRT) have a 22 percent higher risk of contracting breast cancer than women not receiving therapy.
- Abdominal Inflammation
- Abdominal Inflammation or abdominal pain is pain that is felt in the abdomen. Peritonitis is an inflammation of the thin membrane lining the abdominal wall, and can be caused by a bacteria or fungi.
- Searching for Allergy Cures? Be conscious of Over-the-Counter Medications
- Allergy cures are primarily planned to treat allergy. Due to the constantly degrading condition of the environment, more and more people are getting chronic allergies.
- Chrones Disease, Gut Related Ailments
- Is Chrones disease treatable? Health experts are increasingly pointing to leaky gut syndrome as a principal cause of a variety of food allergies.
- Herbal Supplements for Health Care
- Mangosteen juice is one of herbal supplements for health and not a drug. Therefore, using it is similar to ingesting whole foods, vitamins or other sources of antioxidants.
- Allergy medicine for children may make the effects of allergies even worse.
- Walking into a drugstore, you are confronted with an overwhelming display of brightly packaged products of allergy medicine for children, each promising greater allergy relief than its neighbors.
- Adrenal Fatigue Symptoms, Why They Happen and What Can You Do?
- Adrenal fatigue symptoms suggest itself in many ways and usually at different times of the day. Knowing these symptoms, as well as classifying them properly will help you control and treat them.
- Anxiety Symptoms may easily be passed off as the norm; so whats the diff?
- Anxiety symptoms differ from person to person. It can gravely affect the quality of life of the sufferers, but understanding what these symptoms are may lead to proper management.
- Arthritis Knee Pain and Alternative Treatment
- Arthritis Knee Pain coming from the knee joint may be felt in the front, the back, or the sides of the knee. Not all "knee pain" necessarily comes from the knee joint itself.
- Back Pain Help, Essential Information that help in Reducing the Pain
- Back pain help is a common request as it affects almost all individuals all over the world. Often, it causes excruciating pain that limits the capacity of the affected individual.
- Pre Diabetes Symptoms and Alternatives
- Pre diabetes symptoms, also known as "impaired glucose tolerance," is a health condition with almost no symptoms. It is almost always present before a person develops the more serious type 2 diabetes.
- Diabetes Mellitus, What can you do about it?
- Diabetes mellitus takes place when the human body cannot correctly convert food into energy, due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both.
- Recent Medications for Fibromyalgia, How They Function
- The plethora of medications for fibromyalgia are indeed numerous and mind boggling. Some are the traditional medicines while others are newer forms.
- Achieving Insomnia Relief is the Key to a Good Night Sleep
- Insomnia relief is synonymous to the insomniac seeking to bring normalcy back to his life; this maybe easier said than done.
- Nutrition and Mental Health using Mangosteen
- Mangosteen has powerful phytochemicals that help boost the health of many functions in the body, including nutrition and mental health, which is connected to the possible causes of ADD.
- Types of Mental illness addressed by Mangosteen
- The main types of mental illness fall into mood disorders, anxiety disorders and psychotic conditions. Mental illness statistics show that there is a link to gut disorders.
- Mental Depression, Everything You Need to Know about this Condition
- Mental Depression is well-thought to be a mental illness affecting the neurotransmitters of the brain. It is a psychological illness that results in the affected individual feeling blue and ill.
- Migraine Headache Causes, The Key To Prevention
- Migraine headache causes is a necessary truth for many sufferers; although its exact cause may vary, experts do agree that it nearly always involves some form of inflammation.
- Treatment for ADD, Pertinent Information to Evaluate Your Options
- Treatment for ADD may involve two approaches working separately or together, the medical and the alternative. The purpose of any treatment is to control ADD attacks and prevent it from worsening.
- Accurately Diagnosing ADHD, Whats Next?
- In diagnosing ADHD, a number of tests and procedures are usually employed; this is done to determine the extent of the condition and apply better suited treatments.
- Foods that Relieve Constipation
- Mangosteen is one of many foods that relieve constipation. Supplementing with mangosteen should enable you to reduce or eliminate the use of steroids.
- Acid Reflux Remedies, Improve Overall Health By Means of Them
- Acid reflux remedies are foremost thoughts for someone with acid reflux; it is also known as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), a condition which has many symptoms, similar to heartburn.
- A Heartburn Home Remedy that Might Surprise You
- The heartburn home remedy only looked good on paper; the heartburn pain gradually got worse and the stuff that I bought over the counter just wasn’t that effective anymore.
- Causes of Atherosclerosis
- What are the causes of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis symptoms? Atherosclerosis is a disease which claims at least one third of all deaths in the third world.
- Mangosteen Business Feedback
- This is where you can submit your feedback for the Mangosteen Newsletters that have been received. After submitting Mangosteen Business Feedback, I will send you a sample of the Mangosteen Juice.
- Pure Mangosteen Juice
- Pure Mangosteen Juice and Mangosteen Fruit Benefits. Is it right for you? There’s only one way to find out…
- Best Small Business Opportunity
- Best Small Business Opportunity. The relief of pain using drugs are an annual $50 billion industry. A safe natural remedy is sorely needed - One of the lesser fruits of Life, of the Garden of Eden.
- Best Allergy Medicine can be also found in plant substances occurring naturally.
- Best allergy medicine, maybe a conundrum of this technologically savvy generation, as the best medicine yet seems to be available in primitive sources.